#easy_zoom{ width:600px; height:400px; border:5px solid #eee; background:#fff; color:#333; position:fixed; top:35px; left:50%; overflow:hidden; -moz-box-shadow:0 0 10px #555; -webkit-box-shadow:0 0 10px #555; box-shadow:0 0 10px #555; /* vertical and horizontal alignment used for preloader text */ line-height:400px; text-align:center; }

Wednesday

Banavasi -Karnataka , Unpublished Lead coin ( Ra no He ra na nda sa ) Chutus ???



Maharathis of Deccan ( 200 BC - 100 AD )

With collapse of Mauryan power soon after Asoka in second century BC the local administrative officers , who were called Maharathis , Mahatalavara and Mahasenapati built up their own kingdoms and began to issue their own coins . Some of the uninscribed coins might belong to them . But they soon issued coins inscribed with their names . The Maharathis may be looked upon as the earliest known rulers of the deccan . They were succeed by Kura , Ananda ,Hasti , Mahatalavara , Sada , Sebaka families in deccan . The Vidarbha was ruled by Mitra and Bhadra Rulers which were suceeded by Satavahanas . After Satavahanas Ishvaku ruled the Andhra region .For the first time we find that lead was used for coins . Later it become prime metal of deccan for a long time and from there it went to Gujrat and Malwa and then to Punjab where it was first used by Strato II, the Indo-Bactrian Ruler and S'aka Kshatrapa Rajuvula who issed some coins in this metal .

Elephant Maharathis of Lower
Tungabhadra valley (200 BC- 100 AD)
















Sadakana Bull Maharathis of Chandravalli . ಚಂದ್ರವಳ್ಳಿಯ ( ಚಿತ್ರದುರ್ಗ ) ಸದಕನ ಮಹಾರಥಿಗಳು .(30 BC- 70 AD)

With collapse of Mauryan power soon after Asoka in second century BC the local administrative officers , who were called Maharathis , Mahatalavara and Mahasenapati built up their own kingdoms and began to issue their own coins . Some of the uninscribed coins might belong to them . But they soon issued coins inscribed with their names . The Maharathis may be looked upon as the earliest known rulers of the deccan . They were succeed by Kura , Ananda ,Hasti , Mahatalavara , Sada , Sebaka families in deccan . The Vidarbha was ruled by Mitra and Bhadra Rulers which were suceeded by Satavahanas . After Satavahanas Ishvaku ruled the Andhra region .For the first time we find that lead was used for coins . Later it become prime metal of deccan for a long time and from there it went to Gujrat and Malwa and then to Punjab where it was first used by  Indo-Bactrian Ruler and S'aka Kshatrapas who issed some coins in this metal .















Kuras of Belgam (30 BC- 70 AD) Rajno Vasithiputra Kurasa Lead 14.2 gram

The south west region was ruled by the Kuras during the 1st century AD and they were the major power. Brahmapuri and Madhavapur (Kolhapur and Belgaum) were the two major seats. Some of the military achievements over Chutus show the influence of Chutus in their coinage. They mainly ruled between 30 BC and 65 AD as could be understood by the victory of Nahapana over Kuras. The King Vilivayukura is even quoted in Ptolemy's work and seems to be the last king who was defeated by the Satavahanas giving way for Chutus to circulate their coins in this area. All the coins minted by the Kuras were in lead. The bow and arrow decorated the coin obverse and the reverse of their coinage usually carried Chaitya, railed tree and river symbols along with the Brahmi legend along the periphery.




Chutus of Banavasi (30 BC - 345 AD) ಬನವಸಿಯನ್ನಳಿದ , ಚುಟು ವಂಶ .

                                                                                                        
Chutu (cuTu) (ಚುಟು) is a minor dynasty that ruled in parts of Karnataka during 200-300 A.D. under the aegis of Saatavaahana dynasty.(Some scholars have opined that they were independent kings because the word ‘rAjnO’ was the prefix to their names found on the coins minted by them) Chutus and Saatavaahanas were related to one another. They ruled over the region then known as ‘kuntala rAjya’ with ‘Banavasi’ as their capital city. Almost all the details that are known about this dyanasty are reconstructed on the basis of a few inscriptions and lead coins that give us scanty information. The first of these inscriptions was found in Banavasi. It is written in Prakrit language and Brahmi script. This mentions a queen Shivaskanda Naagashree, daughter of ViNhukaDa cuTukulAnanda (cuTukadananda?) sAtakarNi. This was installed in the twelfth year of cuTukulAnanda’s rule. Another inscription talks about the bestowal of the village lATavi to Brahmins. Building of a pond (taTAka), a vihaara and a ‘naagashilpa’ are the topics dealt with in this inscription. The naagashilpa is to be seen even now at the site of Madhukeshvara temple. This was found in a village called ‘maLavaLLi’ in Shikaaripura talluk of Shivamogga district. A saatakarNi is mentioned in this inscription also. Most scholars opine that a few lead coins bearing the names of cuTukulAnanda and muDAnanda were minted by these kings. Based on this material it is surmised that cuTukulAnanda saatakarNi-1, Shivaskanda naagashree and cuTukulAnanda saatakarNi-2 are among the kings who ruled during the regime of this dynasty. (The excavations made by Raghunathabhat on the banks of Varada river near Banavasi have unearthed a coin which mentions ‘sivalAnanda’ adding one more name to the list of kings. They belonged to aananda vamsha and maanavya gOtra. The coins are called ‘Ananda Coins’ because of this reason. It is obvious this small kingdom was taken over by more powerful Kadamba dynasty.
Coins minted by this dynasty are found in many places of Karnataka. Mervyn Smith in Chitradurga (1888) and General Pearse in Karwar are among first to discover these coins. Excavations in Chandravalli (1947) by Mortimer Wheeler and Banavasi at a later date resulted in many more finds. They have a diameter of about one to one and a quarter inch. They weight is between 200-250 grains. Symbols such as a railed tree, arched hill and nandipada and swastika are inscribed on them. Names of the relevant kings are written in Brahmi script. Even the smaller coins found at Chandravalli are attributed to these kings because of many common features. It’s a pity that we know so little about one of our ancient kingdoms.


Vinhukada Chutukulananda Satakrni is known from his inscriptions at Banavasi and Malavalli .The hexagonal pillar set up in front of the Kalleshvara temple has two separate inscriptions dated in 2nd century AD assignable to the period of Vinhukada Chutukulananda Satakarni who was the king of Banavasi .According to Malavalli pillar inscription Vinhukada (Vishnu Skanda ) Chutukulananda Satakarni who belonged to manavyasa gotra and described as – Haritiputra was the ruler of Vaijayanti (Banavasi ) . Banavasi Naga stone slab inscription refers to his twelth regnal year of rule . 
As successors of the main family of Satavahanas the Chutu Anandas goverened from Banavasi which they developed as their royal capital city . They had matrimonial relationship with Satavahanas . Hence their name as Chutu Satakarni as evidenced by Talagunda pillar inscription 





































Sebakas of Ananthpur Region (30 BC -2 nd Century AD )

Sebakas ruled Anantapur region (in the Andhra state) from about 30 BC to late 1st century. Their coinage reveals their family name Sebakas, and hence the dynasty is known as Sebakas. The earlier issues of their coinage carried the Bull emblem alongwith the brahmi legend bearing Kings name. They were struck in copper and resembled the shape {sometimes rectangular, sometime squarish] of Sangam age coins. Arched hill, Nandipada, wheel were the typical devices struck. The later Sebakas influenced by the Chutus, struck lead coins, which typically carried the horse symbol on the obverse and Chaitya, river on the reverse.

Ikshvaku Kingdom lead 1/2 kharshapana, anonymous, circa 227 to 306 AD

Ikshvaku dynasty was a dynasty founded by Ikshvaku, grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. This dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). The supreme perceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty is Sage Vashishta. The important kings of this dynasty are HarishchandraDileepaSagara [1]Raghu and Rama. The word Ikshvaku means "Sugarcane". Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara.Although the Puranas state that seven kings ruled for 100 years in  total, the names of only four of them are known from inscriptions.



Mahatalavaras / Hiranyakas ? 1st-2nd cen AD( Feudatories Of Satavahanas ) Lead 13.10gms




bl

Western Kshatrapas , Nahapana ( 119-124 AD )


Western Kshatrapas , Kshaharata Dynasty .King Nahapana - silver drachm . middle of 1st century AD , Weight-2.28 gms.,
Obv: Head of king right, blundered Greek legend around /
Rev: Arrow and thunderbolt, Brahmi legend-" Rajno Kshaharatasa Nahapanasa " around and in Kharoshthi, anti-clockwise - "Rajno Chaharatasa Nahapanasa."




City state of Eran (c.300-200 BC) Uninscribed Punchmarked 3/4 AE karshapana - Copper 6.67 Grams ,five punch 'Elephant type'








Monday

Panchala Kingdom,Vishnumitra, Copper half karshapana, 20-10 BCE

Gupta Empire (320 to 550 AD) ,Kumaragupta ( 414-455 AD) - silver coin

 The reign of Gupta emperors can truly be considered as the golden age of classical Indian history. Srigupta I (270-290 AD) who was perhaps a petty ruler of Magadha (modern Bihar) established Gupta dynasty with Patliputra or Patna as its capital. He was succedded by his son Ghatotkacha (290-305 AD). Ghatotkacha was succeeded by his son Chandragupta I (305-325 AD) who strengthened his kingdom by matrimonial alliance with the powerful family of Lichchavi who were rulers of Mithila. His marriage to Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi, brought an enormous power, resources and prestige. He took advantage of the situation and occupied whole of fertile Gangetic valley. Chandragupta I eventually assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja (emperor) in formal coronation.

Satavahana Kingdom .ಶಾತವಾಹನ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ . (230 BC - 220 AD )

 The Satavahana Kings initially ruled in the area of the rivers Krishna and Godavari. The Puranas mention 30 Satavahana Kings. Most of the Satavahana kings are known from their coins and inscriptions. This dynasty ruled from Junnar (Pune), Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra and Amaravati (Dharanikota) in Andhra Pradesh over Southern and Central India from around 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the lineage of Satavahana kings came to an end, the most authentic estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahana kings are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the assault of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire
The Satavahanas are the first native Indian rulers to issue their own coins with portraits of their rulers, starting with king Gautamiputra Satakarni,
Satavahana coins give unique indications as to their chronology, language, and even facial features (curly hair, long ears and strong lips). They issued mainly lead and copper coins; some of their portrait-style silver coins were struck over coins of the Western Kshatrapa kings .Their coins also display various traditional symbols, such as elephants, lions, horses and chaityas (stupas), as well as the "Ujjain symbol", a cross with four circles at the end.